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Definition:

Anemia is a condition in which the body does not have enough healthy red blood cells. Red blood cells provide oxygen to body tissues.

Other types of anemia include:

Symptoms:

You may have no symptoms if the anemia is mild. If the problem develops slowly, symptoms that may occur first include:

  • Feeling grumpy
  • Feeling weak or tired more often than usual, or with exercise
  • Headaches
  • Problems concentrating or thinking

If the anemia gets worse, symptoms may include:

  • Blue color to the whites of the eyes
  • Brittle nails
  • Light-headedness when you stand up
  • Pale skin color
  • Shortness of breath
  • Sore tongue

Some types of anemia may have other symptoms.

Signs and tests:

The doctor will perform a physical examination, and may find:

  • Heart murmur
  • Low blood pressure, especially when you stand up
  • Pale skin
  • Rapid heart rate

Some types of anemia may cause other findings on a physical exam.

Blood tests used to diagnose some common types of anemia may include:

Other tests may be done to find medical problems that can cause anemia.

Treatment:

Treatment should be directed at the cause of the anemia, and may include:

  • Blood transfusions
  • Corticosteroids or other medicines that suppress the immune system
  • Erythropoietin, a medicine that helps your bone marrow make more blood cells
  • Supplements of iron, vitamin B12, folic acid, or other vitamins and minerals
Complications:

Severe anemia can cause low oxygen levels in vital organs such as the heart, and can lead to a heart attack.

Calling your health care provider:

Call your health care provider if you have any symptoms of anemia, or any unusual bleeding.

References:

Bunn HF. Approach to the anemias. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 161.

 

   

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